HTTP Controllers / Middleware

All PSR15 compliant middleware / HTTP controllers are stored within the /src/HttpControllers directory. The values within the /boot/routes.yml file are prefixed with App\HttpControllers\ when resolving the namespace, and for example with the route:

catalog: Shop\CatalogViewer

When a HTTP request triggers that at route, the system will look for a HTTP controller at App\HttpControllers\Shop\CatalogViewer., and forward the request to it for processing. As per the PSR15 specification, each HTTP controller class contains one process() method that must return a PSR7 ResponseInterface object, which is then output to the web browser.

Create HTTP Controllers

Although not absolutely required, you may quickly generate a new blank HTTP controller by using the create http-controller CLI command, for example:

apex create http-controller shop Shop/CatalogViewer --route catalog

This assumes a package with the alias "shop" is available, and will create the necessary blank HTTP controller at src/HttpControllers/Shop/Catalog.php, plus will also add the above route to the /boot/routes.yml file.


As per the PSR specifications, the HTTP controller class contains one process() method that takes two arguments -- a ServerRequestInterface object, and an instance of the central App class, which as explained in the next section contains all information on the request such as POST / GET variables, target resource, client information, and much more.

The process() method can do anything you wish, and simply must return a PSR7 compliant ResponseInterface object which is then output to the browser. For example:

declare(strict_types = 1);

namespace App\HttpControllers\Shop;

use Apex\Svc\View;
use Nyholm\Psr7\Response;
use Psr\Http\Message\{ServerRequestInterface, ResponseInterface};
use Psr\Http\Server\{MiddlewareInterface, RequestHandlerInterface};

 * Http Controller - ~alias~
class CatalogViewer implements MiddlewareInterface

    private View $view;

     * Process request
    public function process(ServerRequestInterface $request, RequestHandlerInterface $app): ResponseInterface

        // Do something

        // Render the /views/html/catalog.html view
        $html = $this->view->render('catalog');

        // Create PSR7 compliant response
        $response = new Response(
            body: $html

        // Return
        return $response;


Again, the HTTP controllers can do anything you wish as long as they return a PSR7 compliant ResponseInterface object. The above controller will perform any necessary actions, then render and output the view located at /views/html/catalog.html. Full details on views are explained later on within the Views - Developers section of the documentation.